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Friday, 26 April 2013

When to stand during Iqamah



When to stand during Iqamah



A recent Fatwa from Deobandi cult says:





(Fatwa: 891/672=H)



"It is in a famous Hadith book called Muslim Sharif (Vol. 1 page 220) that the Prophet (صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم) and his Companions (رضی اللہ عنہم) used to queue up in the beginning of iqaamah. It was usual and this is Sunnah. Contrary to this, some people in India and other places have invented a mode that the Imam, coming out of his room or queue, sits on the prayer rug and all the people remain sitting, then a person stands up and says iqaamah, when he reaches at حی علی الصلاۃ, the Imam and other people stand up, they consider this mode as Sunnah and get ready to fight those opposing it. Some ignorant men get them out of mosque too. This method is not proved by any Islamic source let alone the Hadith. In Jawahirul Fiqh Vol. 1, a chapter has been written down on this very subject. All aspects of the matter have been explained thoroughly after collecting evidences. Shortly, correct is what we wrote."

[end of fatwa from deobandi cult]



Please note that this fatwa was posted under the category :

Faiths and Beliefs: Deviant sects and Groups

It measn as per deobandis those muslims who stand up and advocate standing at the time of "hayya alal salaah" are deviant.

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Upon reading the fatwa, it can be seen that this deobandi mufti has cunningly discussed only one sitution and that is

when the Imam enters the masjid , right at the time of Iqamah.

The deobandi mufti has purposely not discussed the following points:

1. From which side of the masjid does the Imam enters the masjid

2. What if the Imam is already sitting in the masjid. For example , adhan was called at 4. 30 pm and Jamaah is at 5 pm and Imam entered tha masjid at 4. 40 pm.

As per this deobandi fatwa , all the people in the masjid will stand at 4. 40 pm ( when they see Imam entering) or they will stanfd at 4. 40 pm and sit back! And when the Iqamah is said , when will they stand is not discussed!

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In India and Pakistan, it is one of the common thing which a lay sunni muslim uses to find who is a wahabi or not! Most Indian muslims follow Hanafi school of Fiqh and stand at 'hayya alal salaah". But Wahabis ( so called ahle hadith and deobandis included) they stand up right at the begining and in wahabi masjid , the wahabi imam says" please keep the saff ( row) staright by touching the heel of the neighbouring person"!!!

[ By this wahabis stretch feet in salah . That is another topic]




 Here is the refutation of this deobandi fatwa from Hanafi school of Jurispudence ( Fiqh)



When to stand up during Iqamah





Some people say that it is not necessary to stand up during the time of Iqamah when the Mukabbir( person who pronounces iqamah) says "Hay’ya alal Salah" or "Hay’ya alal Falaah", rather one should stand at the beginning of the Iqamah.

At the time of takbeer there is instruction to keep sitting. It is abominable and forbidden to stand. When the person who is calling takbeer pronounces  hay’ya alal falah   (come towards prosperity) the persons should stand.

           

In this connection the clarification of the honorable jurists and commentators of hadiths are given below:





  1. The Ulama [ scholars] of Islam have explained the three different ways of standing up during the Iqamah for the purpose of following the Jamaat (congregation). They are:
     

(1.1)When the Imam enters the Masjid from the side of Mihraab (niche)


      (1.2) When the Imam enters the Masjid from the back or from the sides, and


      (1.3) when both the Imam and Muqtadis (followers) are present in the Masjid at the time of Iqamah.
 

  1. As far as the first two methods (1.1 and 1.2) are concerned; no differences exist amongst any group.


  Hadith in Sahih Bukhari states:

قال رسولُ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وسلّم: «إِذا أُقِيمَتِ الصلاةُ فلا تقوموا حتى ترَوني».

Translation: The Prophet (Peace be upon him) said: When the Iqamah of prayer is being said, then "DO NOT STAND UNTIL YOU SEE ME" [Sahih Bukhari (1/227)]

  1. Allama Abu Bakr Bin Masud  al Kasani  (  d.587/1191)writes in " Badaiu al-Sanai' fi Tartibi al-Sharai' . "If the Imam is outside the masjid, the muqtadis will not stand until the Imam does not arrive. If the Imam enters the Masjid from the front of the Saf (row) and when the Muqtadis see the Imam, they should stand up because when Imam enters the Masjid, it is regarded as if he has reached the place of Imaamat. If the Imam enters the Masjid from the back of the rows, according to correct saying, from whichever row the Imam passes, the people of that row should stand up." (Kitab al Salat)
     

 2 Allama Zayn al-Ābidīn Ibrāhīm al-shahīr bi-Ibn Nujaym al-Mirī al-anafī (d.970/1563), writes in    al-Bahr al-raiq ": "If the Imam is not in the Mihrab( niche), then the people of every row should stand when the Imam reaches them. If the Imam enters the Masjid from the front, the people should stand up when they see the Imam."





It is seen that in present time point number (1.3) above is the usual case.

 And in this situation the ruling as per Hanafi fiqh is:

“When the Imam and the Muqtadis all are present in the Masjid, then it is Mustahab (recommended) for all of them to stand up for Jamaat when Mu'ezzin says "Hay’yal alal Salaah" or "Hay’ya alal Falah".



 From salaf as saliheen



1  Umar ibn Abd al- Aziz said: “ When the mu’adhdhin says “qadqaamatis salah” then stand ; now the salah has been established. [Ibn Abi Shaybah, al-Musannaf, 356]

2  Ibn Jurayz asked “ Ata if it was correct that it had been said that when the mu’adhdhin says “ qadqaamatis salah” then the people should stand. Ata’said:”Yes”. [Abd al-Razzaq, al- Musannaf,505]

3  Imam Muhammad narrated from Ibrahim al- Nakhai: “ When the mu’adhdhin says hay’ya alal fala’ah then the people should stand and make rows.When the mu’adhdhin says qad qamatis salah then the imam should say the takbir.” He adds this is the opinion of [Imam ] Abu Hanifah and we adhere to it and if the imam waits until the mu’adhdhin finishes the iqamah and then says the takbir, there is no harm in it either. All this is fine.” [Imam Abu Hanifah, al- athar, 21]

4  In the Muwatta of Imam Muhammed.

In the chapter of salaah, section 32 under the topic of "straightening the rows" the third narration states:

"Muhammed said: "when the caller to prayer (muadhin) has said Hayya ala'l falah, the people ought to stand to pray, form rows, straighten the rows and place their shoulders together. Then when the muadhin has said Qad qamatis salah, the imam should say Allah hu akbar. That is the verdict of Imam Abu hanifah, may Allah have mercy on him.

5   Muhammad said, "Abu Hanifah informed us saying, "Talhah ibn Musarrif narrated to us that Ibrahim said, "When the mu'adhdhin says, hay’ya alal fala’ah ['Hasten to success,'] people ought to stand and form rows, and then when the mu'adhdhin says, qad qamatis salah ['Prayer is about to begin],' the imam says the takbir."

Muhammad said, "We adhere to this and it is the verdict of Abu Hanifah, may Allah, exalted is He, have mercy on him. But if the imam waits until the mu'adhdhin finishes his iqamah and then says takbir, there is also no harm in this, all of that is good"

 (Kitab ul Athar, page 39)



 RULING FROM JURISTS





  The great Jurists and scholars of Islam have explained this issue in detail:-
 

  1.  Allama Abu Bakr Bin Masud  al Kasani   writes: "If the Imam and the Muqtadis are present in the Masjid, then it is Mustahab( recommended) for all of them to stand when the Mu'ezzin says 'Hay’ya alal  Falah'." (Badaiu al sanai)
     
  2. It is mentioned in Tanveer al absar  [ by Shaikh Shams al-din Muhamamad Bin Abdallah-al-Ghazi (A.H. 995)], "If the Imam is near the Mihraab(niche), then Imam and the Muqtadi should both stand up at the time of 'Hay’ya alal  Falah'." (Kitab al  Salat)


 

  1. Allama  Ibn Abideen Shami ( 1198/1252AH)has given thirteen references of authentic books that people should stand up at the time of "Hay’ya alal Salaah" or "Hay’ya alal Falah."


 

  1. It is mentioned in Tabin al haqaiq "When the Mu'ezzin says 'Hay’ya alal Falah' he in fact has commanded for Qiyaam (standing). Therefore, it is Mustahab (recommended) to hurry towards it." (Kitab al Salat) 

    Note: Tabin al Haqaiq is  a commentary on Kanz al daqaiq fi al furu. Kanz al      daqaiq was written by Imam Abdullah Ibn Ahmad Ibn Mahmoud Al-Nasafi (d. 710 AH). Tabin al haqaiq was written by  Imam Al Hafiz Al Zaili Al Hanafi ( d.747 AH)



  1. It is mentioned in Durar al hukkam fi sharh gurar al ahkam ( by Muhammad b. Faramurz b.'Ali Mulla Khusraw al-Tarasusi, d 885 AH): "Standing up is in that time when it is said 'Hay’ya alal Falah'. The meaning of 'Hay’ya alal Falah' is 'come, be attentive'. Therefore, it is Mustahab to hurry towards it." (Kitab al Salat)
     
  2. Imam Abu Hanifa and Imam Muhammad said that people should stand in rows when the Mu'ezzin says "Hay’ya alal Salah".( Umdah al Qari fi Sharh Sahih al Bukhari' written by Imam  Badr al-Din al-Ayni al hanafi, d.855 AH)


 

  1. Imam al Qastalani ( d. 923AH) writes  in Irshad al-Sari li Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari:"It is reported from Imam Abu Hanifah that people should stand at the time of 'Hay’ya alal Falah'."



  1. There exists in ‘Durr al  Mukhtar’ with ‘Radd al  Muhtar’ Vol. 1, P. 322:

                 “Standing of Imam and followers at the time of pronouncing hay’ya alal falah  is desirable.”



  1. There is in Sharah Waqaya Vol. 1, majeedi P. 136:

                 “Let imam and followers stand when hay’ya alal salah is pronounced “



  1. Shaikh hasan bin Ali shurunbulali writes in Miraqul Falah:



    “if imam is present near the niche ( Mahrab) in the mosque then the etiquette of the prayer is that the  imam and the followers should stand when Mukabbir pronounce hay’ya alal falah.”



 11   Mulla Ali Qari Writes in Mirqat Sharah Mishkat vol. 1, P. 419:



“Our Honourable Imams Hazrat Imam Adham,Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Mohammad Rahmatullah Alahim have said that the Imam and the followers should stand at the time of pronouncing hy’ya alal falah”



12   Hazrat Shaikh Abdul Haq Mohaddith Dehlvi Bukhari Rahmatullah Alaih writes in ‘Ash’atul Lamat Vol. 1, page. 321:

“The honourable jusists state state Madhab is that one should stand at the time of pronouncing hay’ya alal salah.”               



13  Nawab Qutbuddin khan writes in Mazahir al  Haq (the Urdu translation of Mishkat) that the jurists have written that when mukabbir pronounces hay’ya alal salah the followers should stand at that time .



14  Qadii Thanaullah panipati writes in ma la budda minh, P. 44:

“The Imam should stand at the pronouncement of hay’ya alal salah.”


 

Thus, it has been made clear with many quotations of Fiqh and commentaries of Ahadith that when the Imam is near the Mihraab( niche) in the Masjid it is Mustahab(recommended) to stand at the time of "Hay’ya alal Salah" or "Hay’ya alal  Falaah".
 

If one stands up at the beginning of the Iqaamah, then it is Makruh( disliked):
 

  1. Mulla Nizaamuddin writes in "Fatawa Alamgiri", which is a very authentic Fatwa book in Hanafi Fiqh, that: "It is Makruh (undesirable act in Shari'ah) to stand and wait. In fact, one should sit down and when the Mu'ezzin says 'Hay’ya alal Falah' then stand up."
     
  2. Allama Sayed Ahmad Tahtawi ( d. 1289 AH) writes in  al Maraqi al-Falah: "When the Mu'ezzin starts the Iqaamat and a person entered the Masjid at that time, he should sit down. He must not stand and wait because it is Makruh as it is mentioned in 'Jaami’ul-Muzmiraat ' of Qahstaani. It is known from here that to stand in the beginning of Iqamah is Makruh, and many people are unaware of this fact".
     
  3. Mufti Shareeful Haq Amjadi, the Mufti of Jamia Ashrafiya Mubarakpur mentions twenty one books of Hanafi Fiqah to prove that it is Makruh to stand at Iqamah, that it should be heard sitting and that people should stand at the time of "Hay’ya alal Salah" or "Hay’ya alal Falah".
     
  4. Allama Abdur Rahmaan Al Jaziri (d.1360 AH) writes: "According to shafi’i  fiqh it is Sunnah to stand for Salah when the Mu'ezzin completes the Iqamah." (Al Fiqh ala al madhahib al-Arba'ah) If a person following shafi’i  fiqh stands in the beginning of the Iqaamah, then he loses the reward of the Sunnah.
     

Some people say that it is difficult to straighten the Saf (row) if people stand at "Hay’ya alal Salah" or at "Hay’ya alal Falah", therefore, it is better to stand up in the beginning of the Iqamah. In reply to this: Could the sahaba, Taabi'een and great Jurists not understand this reason? In that period there were neither markings made in the Masjid nor were there carpets and mats. Nowadays, in every Masjid, all the necessary arrangements are made to keep the rows straight. The reason for not having the rows  straight in good time is not that the people stand at the time of "Hay’ya alal Salaah". In fact, the real reason for not having the rows straight in good time is that people come into the masjid and sit here and there. When the Iqamah begins, they hesitate to come in front quickly. This evil practice should be stopped.
 

Some people say that in Sharah Waqaya and in some other books it is said that the people should stand up at the time of "Hay’ya alal Salah" and in "Fatawa Hindiya" and in some other books it is said that people should stand up at the time of "Hay’ya alal Falah". Which one of these two sayings should one practice? In reply to this Imam-e Ahle Sunnat, Imam Ahmad Raza Khan Bareilvi  says: "In my view, there is no contradiction in the sayings of Sharah Waqaya and Fatawa Hindiya because the first saying is attributed to the end of "Hay’ya alal Salah" and the second saying is attributed to the beginning of "Hay’ya alal Falah". In fact, both the sayings are practiced together. It means that people should start standing when the Muezzin is ending Hay’ya alal Salah" and they should be upright when he is at "Hay’ya alal Falah". (Fatawa Radhwiya)



Note 2

Some people say that there is instruction to the Imam to begin the salah  calling takbeer-e-tahreema (Allahu-Akbar) immediately after the pronouncement of  Qad qamati-s-Salah: hence if the people would stand on the pronouncement of  hay’ya alal falah then the rows would not get straightened for which the  hadith is highly emphatic. And if the rows are set right, by the time takbeer –e  ula (initial takbeer) will be missed, therefore people should stand in the very beginning of iqamah.



The comment on this statement is that: let the Imam begin the prayer calling takbeer e tahreema just when   Qad qamati-s-Salah is pronounced; this is desirable according to both sides. And while ‘Iqama’ to remain standing prior to the pronouncement of   hay’ya alal salah  is abominable as it has already been discussed with reference to Fatawa Alamgiri, Radd al  Muhtar Tahtavi al Maraqi al-Falah and Umdat al Raya.Hence if the followers could not get takbeer e Ula in an effort to keep away from this abomination. Then the Imam should delay Takber e Tahreema.



 This is because there are three advantages in calling Takbeer e Tahreema after the pronouncement of Iqamah.



  1. Both Imam and the followers will be able to respond completely to the call of iqamah by muezzin which is desirable.



  1. The Muezzin will finish calling iqamah and thus will be able to get takbeer-e-ula (initial takbeer) and this is also desirable.



  1. The followers will be able to keep away from the abomination and will straighten the rows as well. If the imam practices a desirable act, to beign the salah after having called takbeer-e-tahreema immediately after the pronouncement of Qad qamati-s-Salah then he himself and the followers themselves will have to desist from another desirable act, i.e.  none of them will be able to respond completely to the iqamah, and secondly, the muezzin will not be able to get takbeer-e-ula.



And third one is that the followers will have to be tainted with abomination by standing prior to the pronouncement of             for setting the rows straight, hence for a desirable act, it will not be alright to commit abomination rather under the circumstances the desirable act will have to be given up as Imam Ibn Hummam has written in Fath al Qadir Vol. 1, P 202:



         “When along with the commitment of abomination some other desirable acts are also forsaken, then that desirable act (which has caused all these) will not be pursed. That is why the masses and the inhabitants of Harmain act according to the assertion of Imam Abu Yusuf, i.e. the Imam should not call takbeer e tahreema just after the pronouncement of    Qad qamati-s-Salah, and rather he should begin the prayer when the iqamah’ is over. (Sharah Waqaya P. 63).



               Moreover, the practice to put the rows in order even after the pronouncement of iqamah is established by the prophet sal allahu alay hi wasllam himself. For instance, Hazrat Numan bin Basheer Radiallah ta’ala anhu narrates that the Holy prophet Sallal laho Alaihe Wasallam stood up to offer salah and he was about to call takber e tahreema that he caught sight of a person whose chest was getting out of the row. The prophet sal allahu alayhi wa sallam asserted, “O devotees to Allah! Straighten your rows” (Mishkat P.97. Narration of Muslim). In Addition to this it has be narrated in regard to  Umar Farooq e adham and Uthman Ghani Radiallahu ta’ala anhuman,that they also did not use to call takbeer e tahreema although, pronouncement of iqamah got over; instead they would begin the prayer on getting the infromation that rows were set right. ( Muwatta  of Imam Mohammad, P. 88, Published in Deoband)

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